original
SECTION 7.1 USERCCDE (PAPER TAPE) COMPILER 1 7.1 A. IDENTIFICATION Computer: KDF 9 Program No: KAA01PT Title: USERCODE (PAPER TAPE) COMPILER 1 B. GENERAL DESCRIPTION Purpose: To compile USERCODE Source Programs held on PAPER TAPE into machine code object programs in the core store and which may be entered immediately ("Load and Go"} if required. The object program may optionally also be punched to PAPER TAPE, Input: A PAPER TAPE containing a USERCODE Source Program written in the notation described in the KDF 9 Programming Manual, and preceded by the data shown in the Standard Heading Sheet. Output: 1. Messages on the MONITOR TYPEWRITER to indicate the progress of the Compiler, 2. A list of errors (failure reports) if any located in the source program, output to PAPER TAPE, (The form and content of failure reports are specified in detail in Appendix 1) 3. Optionally, a table of the references in the source program and their corresponding machine addresses, either to PAPER TaPE, or an ON−LINE PRINTER. An example of reference tables is included in Appendix 2s 4. Optionally, a copy of the object program in BINARY FORMAT (see Section 22,4) may be punched to PAPER TAPE. Note: If any output occurs under heading 2; then output 4, even if requested, will automatically be inhibited. C. METHOD OF USE Selection of Selection of various output options and the types of Options: peripheral devices to be used, is controlled by the compiler itself. The necessary information is insertec at run time via the MONITOR TYPEWRITER. The queries made end the possible responses appropriate %o cach are showm in Division G.
original
7 − 2 − 0 Section 7.1 (cont. } 7.1 However, prior to run time the user should have decided:- 1. Whether the object program is to be punched out. 2. Whether reference tables are required. 3. The type of output device for reference tables, 4. Whether "Load and Go" is required. This option is not available if the "START" option is being exercised. D. OWN CODE OPTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS None available or required, E. PROGRAM CHARACTERISTICS General: This is an autonomous, non−segmented program. Method: The source program is read from paper tape in two parts, each to an EM character, The first part consists of the heading sheet up to and including the program title. The second part consists of the remainder of the heading sheet and the source program proper, terminated by "FINISH;°", Thus any extra or omitted "+! will cause an immediate failure. Also, all the program, including library subroutines, must be included before the "FINISH;→", Processing The compiler first processes the heading sheet and if Heading Sheet: it finds eny error or inconsistency at all in this part of the program, the compilation is terminated and the Compiler re−entered at the beginning to process the next program. Processing In processing the source program proper, the Compiler Text: checks every Usercode instruction for validity and consistency. If an instruction passes the checks it is translated into machine code (as far as possible) and stored in the next location in the core store. If a check fails then the instruction is ignored, a failure report is output, and the Compiler moves on to the next instructicn. Having processed all the instructions in this way (up to "FINISH") a process called "UPDATE" is performed, This completes the compilation by entering absolute machine addresses in place of the Usercode references (the former may not have been available on the Compiler's first pass). This updating process is also carried out whenever the label LiVy or Pp¥v is encountered in the source program, since a new set of reference tables is started at these points. Again, if inconsistencies are found, failure reports are output. Thus, at the end of the run a complete list of invalid instructions, if any, is
original
7 − 3 − 0 Section 7.1 E (cont. ) aveileble. ‘Whether failures have occurred or not the Y0 specification will be given (on either the Line Printer or the Paper Tape Punch), If there were no invalid instructions, the compiled program and reference tables, if required, will be output on the specified device. Output of The compiled program will be laid out in the standard Compiled A, B, C blocks form, with the Y0 specification Program: preceding the A−block unless reference tables are requested on the printer in which case it will accompany these. The C−block is in fact punched 32 words atatime, but in a form which will be read in a single transfer. If the user did not specify Y0, then the Y0 specification output here is the true one, However, if the user did specify Y0, then although this value is used to derive the data addresses, (i.e, YA−YZ and W stores addresses, which are evaluated by working backwards from this point), the Y0 specification output here indicates the earliest position in which it could have been placed, had the user wished, When the specified output has been completed, one of two courses of action is taken. If the "Load and Go" option is being exercised, the compiled program is moved in the store to the position it would have occupied if it had been read by Director, and the Compiler oveys OUT 2, If "Load and Go" is not required, the Compiler is re−entered at the beginning to process the next progran, F. COMPUTER REQUIREMENTS AND CONDITIONS Core Store: This Compiler exists in different versions for sizes of store from 2 modules (8K) up to 8 modules (32K). No advantage in speed is gained but the larger the store. available, the larger the source programs which can be compiled, The Compiler itself occupies 2880 words. (This figure is valid at 1.5.65 but is subject to slight increase). It uses all the remaining space to the end of the store, whatever size this happens to be, for storing the source program, the compiled program and the Compiler's own internal tables. Peripherals: This Compiler requires 1 PAPER TAPE RSADER and 1 PAPER TAPE PUNCH. Optionally a LINE PRINTER may also be used. G. NORMAL OPERATING PROCEDURES 1. Load Compiler, 2. "02A0<d>" is typed. Load the source program on device <d>,
original
7 − 4 − 0 Section 7.1 G (cont.) 7.1 3. TINT; B<d0><d1><d2>.→ where d0 = 0 if the object program is required {on paper tape). ≠0 if the object program is not required. d1 = device type for reference tables. (d=1 for PTP, d=3 for ON−LINE PRINTER). d2 = NZ if load and go required, otherwise zero. 4. 01A0<d>" is typed. Check that the punch <d> is ready. 5. Wind up the source program. 6. "01N0<d>" is typed. Wiud up the output tape and collect together MONITOR and (if any) the ON−LINE PRINTER output. 7.. If d1, = 3 then the pair of monitor messages O3A0<d> O3N0<d> will be typed. 8. "02N0<d>" is typed. No action required. 9. If "Load and Go" has been specified and the program has compiled successfully it will now be entered, otherwise to step 10 below. 10. When compilation has been successfully completed the message <identifier> OK RAN/EL/mmmMssS/ummMsss will be typed. If the compilation is unsuccessful <identifier> FAILS RAN/EL/nmolissS/mmlssS will be typed. 11. If there are no more programs to be compiled, terminate the run by "TINT;A.→", otherwise return to step 2 above. H. NORMAL CORXECTION PROCEDURES If an invalid instruction occurs in the source program, then a failure report is output and compilation continues. If the heading sheet is found to be in error, one of the messages listed in Appendix 1 is punched and the compilation is terminated. In either case, on completion of the compilation process the message given in step 10 of Division G is typed. The next program should then be processed. J−K. Not relevant. L. TIMING DATA The time tuken to compile a Userecode program depends on the size and construction of the progran. As a very rough guide, the time taken to
original
Section 7.1 L (cont, ) 7.1 the paper tape, The time for output depends on its volume. M. EXTENSIBILITY The Usercode text as provided on the NINEMASTER is the text as required for both 3 and 4 module versions. The required store limits are 12K − director size or 16K − director size The time limit is 999 for all sections, To produce a 2K version (KAAOIPT) requires the following amendment (via Post). BEFORE LINE YB→ REPLACE 1 LINE BY YB300;→ This section should then be comniled with
original
SECTION 7.1 APPENDIX l 7.1 USERCODE COMPILER FAILURE REPORTS Purpose: This appendix specifies for Programmers’ use the form and content of the Failure Reports whicn may be output by the Compiler on ating violation of usercode rules and other failures. Format of While a source program is being compiled any errors in Failure it are punched out on paper tape in the following forn. Reports: PAILURE REPORT P progran identifier message message Each message gives information about one error. The possible messages may be grouped under 5 headings. 1. Heading Sheet Errors Any error occurring up to and including the word PROGRAM (or PROG or PROGRAMME) 1s catastrophic to tue compilation. It is net always possible for tne compiler to give the exact fault, garticularly if the items are incorrectly sequenced The possible messages are: NO P/T The first letter on the tape is neither P nor T. TITLE A non standard case normal character appears in the title. STORE LT } TIME LT } In its test for the specification V SPECN } stated, the compiler either does W SPECN ) not recognise the set of letters, MTPR } or does not accept the integer as START } valid, or finds the specification YA SPECN ) inmcerrectly terminated. The first YI USED } condition may hold if the correct Y0 USED ) sequence (as defined in Appendix 4} RESTART } is not followed, PROGRAM ) The failure report PROGRAM can occur after several other failures, This can only occur when RESTART: has been used and when the word PROGRAM has been omitted. 2. Instruction Errors When an instruction is invalid the messuge consists of two parts, a pointer anda cuaracter string.
original
7 − 7 − 0 Section 7.1 (cont. ) 7.1 The POINTER This is of the form Pddddd Rddddd + ddddd or Iddddd Radddd + ddddd where Pddddd or Lddddd is the number of the current subroutine (P00000 is the main program), Radddd is the last valid reference processed and +ddddd is the number of valid instructions processed since the last valid reference. The CHARACTER STRING This consists of the set of characters comprising the invalid instruction i.e. from the last valid instruction terminator up to and including the next terminator (';' or CR/LF in the case of all instructions and constant declarations except for a Vv=P constant in which case the only valid terminator is ';' or a comment in which case ');' is the terminator), and is terminated by an end message. In the case of a string consisting of more than 72 characters (most probable in the case of a Vv/v=P constant or in an unclosed comment) the first 64 characters and the last 8 characters make up the string. 3. Referencing Errors If a reference appears twice in the same subroutine or in the main program, the message is exactly as under heading 2. i.e. Pddddd Rddddd + ddddd dddd; where dddd is the reference and the pointer relates to the second occurrence of the reference. If a reference is omitted the message is of the form AT dddad/s Padddd Rddddd NOT IN dddda@/s is the octal address/syllable number of the instruction in which reference Rddddd of subroutine Pddddd is included. When this type of failure message is produced then reference tables will be punched or printed, if these have been requested by the interrupt. Main program reference labels mst be in the range 0−1011. This limit applies irrespective of module size. 4. Other Programming Errors Y0 SPECN OUT BY − dddd. Y0 has been incorrectly specified. dddd is the number of words by which the program and W0 overlap. Y OFF ST The store limit specified is smaller than either the declared specification or that derived from the program. KDF 9 (Revised 9.6.65)
original
7−8−0 Section 7.1 (cont.) 7.1 EM POUND An end message nas been found in the program, This is normally caused by an unclosed coment or by the word FINISH: being omitted. The failure report immediately previous to this message relates to the context in which the end message was found. 5. Machine Fault Reports and Failures due to Machine Size MACHINE Machine failure report which can be caused by a variety of faults, e.g failure in arithmetic operations, internal tables being faulty etc. UPDATE This is normally a machine error, due to the incorrect formation of an updating list. It can, however, occur i1 a V− constant declaration, of a form stated below is declared more than once, V−constant form:- if the declaration consists only of constants or addresses of W,YA to YZ, or Y stores. This does not apply 1f the option Y0 = Ee is used. e.g If the 4 constants V2 = AY0; V4 = Q0/ AY0/0; V2 = AY0: V4 = QO /AY0/0; occur in the same program, the compilation will fail "UPDATE". XFUNWY A machine failure eccuring when an internal table camot be interpreted. PARITY A parity failure has occured. BIT LIST This occurs when the YB specification of the Paper Tape compiler is too small. NO SPACE This occurs when the compiler used is too small to allow space for the program being compiled. If an overlength failure report is punched out, containing mainly referencing failures, often with Pg RG NOT IN, or otherwise with very large references, this is a machine failure of the type XFUNNY. Warning Messages S/R LIST SHIFTED UP These are messases that do not interfere S/R LIST SHIFTED DOWN with the compilation but state that the compiler has been forced to move its sets of tables. KDF9 (Revised 20.1.67.)
original
7 − 8 − 1 SECTION 7.1 APPENDIX 2 USERCODE COMPILER REFERENCE TABLES The following is an example of reference tables us produced by the Usercode Compiler. The program consists of subroutines L1, L63 and P999 and the main program PO. Within each cf these the reference labels are listed in numerical order. In each column the reference number (decimal) is followed by its octal address, relative to EO, in two parts − the word address of 5 octal digits and the syllable number of 1 digit. Thus the main program,PO, contains references 1,2,3,4 and 40. The first instruction of PO is in E109 (octal 155). Reference label number 1 is on the first syllable of E115, reference 2 is on the last syllable (number 5) of E117, and so on, The address shown against the subroutine number is the address of the first instruction of the subroutine, Thus the subroutines V stored immediately precede this address. (e.g. if L63 has 5 V stores, V0 to V4, then the address of V0 is E245). 08/10/64 PROGRAMIDENT REFERENCE TABLES (rest of page invalid) PO 00155 0 1 00163 0 2 votes 5 3 00187 9D 40 00170 2 P 999 00206 0 L 63 00252 0 1 00252 0 2 00253 0 oO 5 00266 3 6 UG267 0 7 00256 1 ° 10 00361 3 11 00341 12 00352 3 4 15 00321 1 16 00330 3 V7 00335 1 5 20 06321 4 =21: 00324 2 22 UOeT2 2 5 25 00276 1 27 00300 5 28 OuZoOu 2 u 31 00350 5 = 32 vus51 3 35 v0346 0 36 00355 4 L 4 00514 0 100651 4 2 00521 0 5 00537 4 6 01251 2 7 91251 2 10 UOT35 4 11 00747 5 12 00742 2 15 01065 0 16 00742 5 Vy 01044 4 20 01065 0 = 2101104 1 22 01107 4 25 01031 2 26 01020 5 27 01013 1 30 00755 5 = 31:01047 3 32 00523 3 36 01126 4 = 337: 01130 1 38 01160 0 4701140 2 42 01161 4 = 43 −O1744 4 , 46 01162 4 = 4701153 5 = 48 01066 2 ? 51 00553 5 52 00556 5 53 00557 4 3 56 00604 2 57 00576 2 58 00577 2 3 64 00647 2 65 00650 4 66 00611 2 3 69 01076 1 70 01170 3−71 −01164 2 3 74 01236 1 75 01241 1 76 01207 0 TT o12il 79 01156 3 = 80 01222 3−81 01223 0 62 C107) 4 84 01072 1 85 01021 2 = 86 00663 5 87 00666 1 89 010275 90 OU7I2 2 91 00705 2 92 00770 3 94 01044 0 95 00637 4 96 OU660 0 97 00722 2 99 01044 0 100 01034 2 101 01206 3 102 01011 2 104 00776 4 105 01000 3 106 00775 3 107 O10C2 3 109 01005 0 110 01007 1. 414:01056 3 112 01033 1 11401057 4 KOF 9
original
SECTION 7.1 APPENDIX 3 The contents of this Appendix deal with extra facilities and instructions, the information being included here pending issue in the KDF 9 Usercode Programming Manual. SPECIFICATION OF PRINTER CODE CONSTANTS Sections 1 to 7 relate to 8−hole usage, Section 8 relates to 5−hole usage, 1. Form of specification in Userscode There are 2 forms: (a) Wf/w = P <character string>; (b) Vv = P <character strings; Form (a) denotes 2 character string which is to occupy V stores v to w inclusive, w must be greater than or equal to v. Form (b) is an abbreviated form of Vv/w when v=w. The character string must not fill more character positions than 8x(w−v+1). The character string will be LEFT JUSTIFIED in the V store area specified. Any unfilled positions will be filled by the space symbol (00), 3 2, The character string This consists of a combination of editing symbols, expressed in a formal notation; and elements of the following character set, 0 thru 9 A thru Z / + − . 10 ( ) = * ( *is the formal. symbol for a single space) The formal notation for editing or format symbols Editing symbols which are required to be gompileu into the machine code program constants (exeept for the single space i.e. *) must be enclosed in string quotes ice. [ ] The symbols provided for are: Symbol Meaning Octal Form after_compilation S space 00 C CR−LF 02 P page change 03 T tab 04 N case normal 07 Q semi colon 34 EM end message 75 D dummy 77
original
7 − 8 − 3 Section 7.1 {eont. ) 7.1 Any number of such sy:.bols may be included in a single pair of string quotes and any such symbol may be preceded by an unsigned decimal integer to denote multiple symbols. String quotes may not be nested e.g. [C [EM]] is invalid Examples [N 2T] [29D C EM] 3. Editing symbols and characters on the original text tape All editing symbols (space, tab, and CR/LF) occurring from the P until the specification terminator (sce 4) are ignored on the original text tape. Also letters A thru Z can be written in lower shift but are compiled as though they were in case normal. Thue the following two specifications will result in the same constants:- V0/1 = P [NC] EXAMPLE*1 [4SEM]; V0/1 = P [n c] Example * 1 [4d em]; The octal forms of the compiled constants are: V0 = B 0702457041556054; V1 = B 4500217777777775; The Specification Terminator CR−LF is not a vulid terminator. Otherwise the normal instruction terminators are valid. i.e. for the Paper Tape Compilers ; for Post ; or , 5. Warnings as to use a) Transfers to the line printer should not contain more than one line of output. Thus C or FP aliould be the last character of the text output. This can be achieved by the use of multiple dumay characters which are ignored by the printer. P is a plugboard functicn. b) OUT 8 or OUT 1 Care should be taken to use only those editing symbols permitted by the Director. In OUT 8 flexowriter queries the semi−colon must occupy the last character position of a word.
original
7 − 8 − 4 Section 7.1 (cont. ) 7.1 6. Failures due to incorrect use a) w is less than v (see 1) b) There are too many characters in the character string. c) The area Vv to Vw already has a non−zero entry. It should be noted that, as unfilled words within the Vv to Vw area are made equal to zero, the compiler will not report a subsequent entry to the declared area unless there is a non zero entry in it. i.e. V0/10 = P TITLE; V6 = B735; will not cause a failure. 7. Examples of P−Constants V0/1 = P [nc] M [c] PROGRAMIDENT; V7/23 =P [16S] HERE*IS*tHE*TITLE [ce em] 5 V26/29 = P [no] M*TAPE WANTED [q] ; V31/38 = P [6S] 1ST*COLUMN [12S] 2ND*COLUMM [125] 3RD*COLUMN [3D C] 8. 5 hole usage The specification differs only in the hardware representation of the symbols. These are as follows: 8 hole 5 hole * £ [ *Q ] *U ; *, Thus the second example in 7 would be written. V7/23 = P *Q16S*UHERE£IS£THE£TITLE*QC EM*U*,
original
7 − 8 − 5 SECTION 7.1 APPENDIX 4 7.1 THE USERCODE HEADING SHEET The following is a list of items that either can or must appear on the heading sheet. It is written in 4 colums. The first 2 colums consist of the symbols M, 0, N, to show whether the item is Mandatory, Opticnal, or Not required. The order of the items in the list is never optional. The iteus wnich follow the end message symbol are separated by the usual program separators. Column 1 relates to the Paper Tape Compilers, Colum 2 to the POST compilers. If <unsigned integer> is left unfilled in any of the optional items, it is equivalent to omitting this item (but it must have appeared in the correct list order.) Editing symbols may appear in any position except for CR−LF which may not break up an item. P.T.Comp. POST Item Comment M N P or T ) M N 12 non editing symbols) See Note 1 to this Appendix O N Any set of characters ) M N End Message ) M O ST <unsigned integer> or Number of words of storage ST required. ST0; and ST; are alternative forms and have the effect of allowing the machine code program to use the run time store limit of the machine, Under POST this item is ignored if it occurs. M O TL<unsigned integer> Time limit for the machine code program, given in seconds. Under POST this item ie ignored if it occurs. TL; will cause a failure report in the P.f, compiler), O O MIPR Allocates the program tape to the program, Gee NOTE 3) O O START<unsigned integer> Program origin relocated at thie address in place of zero (further details in NOTE 2), O O Y0=<unsigned integer> The address of Y0 is to be that stated (rounded up to a multiple of 32 if necessary). O O V Sunsigned integex> The highest main program V store which is to be used. O O W <unsigned integer> The highest W store which is to be used,
original
7 − 8 − 6 Section 7.1 Tol P.T.Comp. POST Item Comment O O YA <unsigned integer>) The highest of these stores which YB " " ) is to be used. YI and Y0 are YC " " ) not included in the list and . . ) may not be used. Items within . . ) this group may appear in any . . ) order. YZ <unsigned integer>) O O RESTART; 0 to a max. of Any instructions occurring in 6 syllables of this item will be stored in usercode instructions E4 of the 'B!' block of the machine code program. M M PROG or PROGRAM or This item marks the end of the PROGRAMME heading sheet and the beginning of the program proper. NOTE 1 The Identifier and Title of a Paper Tape Program. (a) The identifier is formed from the first 13 printing characters. Up to the 13th of these characters, the symbols for space, CR−LF, case shift, case normal, are completely ignored in reading the paper tape. This is to ensure that a valid identifier is obtained. Note that case shift is ignored and thus unless all 13 characters are in case normal an altered identifier may be obtained. (b) Characters subsequent to the 13th printing character are inserted into the 6 words allocated to the title. This includes both editing and non−editing symbols. Any excess over 6 words is lost and does not cause a failure. The end message is moved (it necessary) to be the last character of the 6 words. Any unused character positions are filled with the space symbol (octal 00). (c) Only Standard Case Normal (S.C.N.) characters, spaces, and CR−LF, should be used before the first end message of a paper tape. The use of other symbols may well cause the contents to be corrupted when used in other programs (e.g. Updater). The S.C.N. characters are:- O − 9 A − Z . + −/ 10
original
7 − 8 − 7 Section 7.1 (cont.) 7.1 NOTE 2 START unsigned integer Its function is best illustrated by an example. If START 1600; is specified, tae machine code program at run time is placed in the store as follows:~ WORDS 0 − 7 (The 'B! block) in E0−E7 Subsequent words (The 'C' blocks) in E1608 onwards NOTE 3 MIPR This allocates the program tape to the program (see section 10.1 section C, program input procedure). The compiler sets D0 of ES to 1.
Actually NOTE 2 is not true, though the same statement appears elsewhere in other internal EE documentation.
Actual use of KAA01PT reveals that the code starts at 1600 in the above example.